Formation of independence
Semenyuk L. M. reader in developmental psychology: textbook for students/ed. by D. I. Feldstein: edition 2, revised. – Moscow: Institute of practical psychology, 1996. – 304 p.
The formation of independence
The accumulation of practical experience in the operation and development of cognitive and social orientation form the child-preschooler the desire for independence. Autonomy develops with the age of the child, changing the direction and the nature of the manifestations.
If in the second year of life the child has learned that he can move and act with some items, during the preschool period, he makes another remarkable discovery: he can work amongst children and adults regardless of their desires and requirements, you can choose the toys, the pictures, the story of your picture, you may think as you wish the story to the picture or game.
He can sculpt, build, help others. Its starting to listen other children in games, disputes. Sometimes even adults are subject to his “want” and “do not want”. So who knows what he can do, to build, to tell, to invent!
Parents encourage children to work independently, and later to reason, to evaluate. But those same adults are constantly limit the independence of children. If four-year-old girl whom always encouraged to dress themselves, took the dress that are supposed to only wear during the holidays, an audiologist for a self-will.
The development in children of preschool age the possibility and necessity to act independently poses a caregiver is a difficult question about measure of autonomy, valid and necessary for the proper development of the child.
Numerous researches. allow to specify some attributes of autonomy of the child.
Independence of a child has nothing to do with his natural behavior.
The level of independence of children increases with their development, increasing their ability to meet increasingly complex physical and mental actions. Therefore, what was estimated as a manifestation of independence among two-, three-year-olds (the ability to neatly eat, dress without the help of an adult) is not enough to characterize the same quality in older children.
In the development of autonomy can be scheduled three steps.
The first stage is when the child acts in the usual conditions in which to develop basic habits, without reminders, prompting and assistance by an adult (he cleans up after the game, building material; he goes to wash hands, when you call him to the table; he says “please” and “thank you” when asking for something or thanks for the help).
The second stage – the child independently uses the habitual ways of acting in new, unusual, but close and homogeneous situations.
The third stage is already possible more distant migration. The basic rule acquires a General nature and becomes a criterion for determining a child for their behavior in all conditions.
Initiative activity the child performs in different forms of activity and communication, often going beyond the established older rules of conduct. One of a kind forms of child activity – pranks.
The nature of pranks, has not been studied. What is this phenomenon? Natural or whether it is a violation of the right track of a child’s development. A prank is always action. This is a form of child activity. Prank possible when the child is healthy, when pronounced him emotionally positive bias, when the excess energy that is not spent on games and even unnecessary for work, are in this specific form of child behavior.
In the antics of the child shows the initiative. It aims to transform something.
The ability to take the initiative, ingenuity, something to alter, to play the unusual role causes in children a sense of great joy. So the prank is always cheerful, she brings kids a huge, violent fun. Starting to misbehave, the children can hardly stop.
In most cases pranks is a new and unusual form of communication of the child with adults or with other children. In pranks, the child often acts as the initiator of this communication. Therefore, in pranks children usually show a positive attitude towards people, and while in the process of rapid action, the child may be uncomfortable, even to hurt the other, he is terrified and tries to caress and comfort the victim. This friendly attitude to people prank differs from mischief, where the child’s initiative is directed intentionally to annoy an adult or peer, to give him trouble.
Can be identified the following groups of pranks. The first group consists of pranks games. Child or simply acts with others, showing their strength, dodging, agility, or by taking on a role that does the same under the guise of some character (wolf, dog, cat, rider, etc.
The second group can be attributed pranks as unusual baby steps with things. They are motivated by research, educational environment. This motif can be expressed by the following formula: “What happens if. ”
Such pranks are characteristic of older children.
The third group can be attributed pranks that are motivated by the desire of the child to test their limits and to establish themselves in them. The motive of such pranks can be expressed by the question: “would I?”.
So, in the preschool period of childhood. there are significant changes.
1. Rebuilt orientation of the child. Role of organic needs as motives of action weakens. A great deal of power and efficiency gain cultural needs, educational interests and special motives of cognition and communication.
2. In the formation of social motives play a significant role samples, which are specific adults. The child imitates them. However, increasing the activities of the child. It is known and clear to him the rules of conduct. Serial their application educator and accordingly a reasonable estimate of their children’s actions that protect or violate a specific rule, become. the basis of their moral conduct. Everyday action according to the rules provides for the formation of complex in preschool children habits: domestic, cultural and moral.
3. On the basis of identified behaviours can be successfully formed the most valuable quality of self – reliance. It passes in its development of a set of steps and manifested in practical approximately research, cognitive activity, and in his everyday behavior with adults and peers. The growing autonomy of children is manifested in various forms of initiative activity of children, about the goal of the operation, the choice of the mode of action, subordination of one or another motive, and sometimes in disobedience, self-will and obstinacy. Self-acting with the available subjects and the initiative to communicate with people Express the most important need of children of preschool age in the activity. Activity of children of this age is mostly educational in nature and focus on the transformation of the surrounding (feasible for preschoolers), the discovery of an unknown (and himself), communication with adults and children.