The influence of the environment on the personality development of the child
A person becomes a person only in the process of socialization, i.e. communication, interaction with other people. Outside of human society, spiritual, social, mental development cannot occur. The reality, in which the development occurs is called the environment. On the formation of personality is influenced by various external conditions, including geographic, social, school, family. The intensity of contacts is allocated near and far environment. When teachers say about the impact of the environment, they mean primarily the social environment and home. The first refers to distant places, and to the nearest second. The concept of “social environment” includes such common characteristics as a social system, the system of industrial relations, material conditions of life, the character of the course of production and social processes, and some others. Near Wednesday is family, relatives, friends.
What is the influence of the environment on human development? Unity in the assessment of the impact of environment on human development yet. The tremendous importance of the environment recognize the teachers around the world. A different view when assessing the degree of influence of environment. As you know, the abstract environment exists. There is a specific social order, the specific conditions of human life, his family, school, friends. Of course, the person reaches a higher level of development where the near and distant surroundings provides the most favorable conditions.
A huge impact on human development, especially in children, has a home environment. In the family are usually the first, crucial for the formation, development and formation years of a person’s life. The child is usually pretty accurate reflection of the family in which he grows and develops. The family largely determines the range of his interests and needs, attitudes and values. The family provides and conditions, including financial, for the development of natural inclinations. Moral and social qualities are also laid in the family.
The current family is going through hard times. A growing number of divorces, single-parent families, increasing the number of socially disadvantaged children. The crisis of the family, according to experts, was the cause of many negative social phenomena, and especially the root growth of juvenile delinquency. Juvenile crime in Russia has reached alarming proportions. A significant number of offenders in the country are committed by teenagers and young people aged 14-18.
School, class, friends — next conc inner circle of the younger man. Their influence on the formation and development of personality very much. On the strength of the level and quality of impact depends on how a person grows up, the bearer of what values he will become.
What has a greater impact on the development of the person — environment or heredity? The opinions of experts on this issue were divided. The adherents of the so-called biogenic (biogenetic) directions in pedagogy unconditional preference is given to heredity, and sociogenic (socio-genetic, – sociologicheskogo) environment. Many researchers are trying to determine the exact quantitative proportions of the influence of environment and heredity on human development. The results are very contradictory, that proves only one thing: the contribution of the studied factors in the development of different people varies. The influence of the environment, according to estimates of the sociogenic direction, can reach 90%; the influence of heredity, the advocates of biogenic direction, is not less important: 80-90%. More trust is called balanced assessments that ignore the extremes. For example, the British psychologist D. Shuttleworth (1935) to the following conclusion about the impact of key factors on mental development: a factor in mental development
64% are hereditary influence,
16% of the differences in the family environment,
3% — the differences in the upbringing of children in the same family and
17% for confounding factors (interaction of heredity with environment).
Of course, science strives for accuracy, it is her goal. But it is unlikely even the most rigorous calculations are completely accurate. Develops each person differently, and “share” the influence of heredity and environment each has its own. In what proportions will intertwine valid reasons, what the result will be the result of their interaction depends on many random factors, which neither take into account nor cannot be measured.
The influence of the environment on child development from the point of view of pedagogy.
In pedagogy of the society, the social environment is primarily seen from the point of view of the process of inclusion of the child and integration through the nearest social environment in society as a whole. From this point of view becomes important that the relationship of human and external social conditions in society have the character of interaction: people in a certain extent affect the environment, modifies it, but at the same time, and the environment affects the person, makes him their demands. The relation of environment to man is determined by how its behavior conforms to the expectations of the environment. The behavior of a person is largely determined by what position he occupies in society.
There may be several simultaneously and each is characterized by certain rights and obligations, i.e. has a different social status.
Statuses are innate (gender, nationality, place of birth, surname, etc.) and acquired (achieved through their own efforts).
The status determines the behavior of the individual in society, i.e. people behave in accordance with their status, by analogy with the behavior in similar situations by other people. Behavior, due to the status of a person is called social role.
The absorption of a variety of social roles is an important part of the process of socialization. In the process of formation and development of the child can develop positive social roles, and negative. To include positive role of a family member, staff member, consumer, citizen, etc. refer To negative role of the tramp, child beggars, thieves, etc.
The child development mechanism role behavior gives him successful involvement in social relations, since it allows us to adapt, to adapt to each new situation or position on the rest of their lives. This process of adaptation of the individual to the social environment is called social adaptation.
According to the M. A. Galaguzova, G. N. Stinova, E. Y. Tishchenko, B. P. Dyakonova, social adaptation is a precondition and a result of successful socialization of the child, which is known to occur in three main areas: activity, communication and consciousness.
In the field of activity of the child is the extension of activities orientation in each view, the understanding and mastering, the mastering of appropriate forms and means of activity.
In the field of communication is expanding the range of interaction, the filling and deepening of content, the assimilation of norms and rules of behavior accepted in society, the mastery of its various forms, is acceptable in social environment of the child and society as a whole.