In the beginning of the last century, scientists proved the existence of 4 groups of blood. How are inherited by child blood group?
The Austrian scientist Karl Landsteiner, mixing the serum of some people with red blood cells taken from the blood of others, found that for certain combinations of red blood cells and serum is “bonding” – the clumping of red blood cells and clots, while others have not.
Exploring the structure of red blood cells, Landsteiner discovered the particular substance. He divided them into two categories, A and b, highlighting the third, where he carried the cage in which they were not. Later, his disciples – A. von Decastella and A. Storli – found cells containing the markers and type at the same time.
The studies have any system of division into groups of blood, which was called AVO. This system we still use today.
I ( 0 ) – blood group is characterized by the absence of antigens A and b;
II ( A) is installed in the presence of antigen A;
III ( AB ) – antigen;
IV( AB ) – antigens A and B.
This discovery made it possible to avoid losses if transfusions caused by incompatibility between the blood of patients Continue reading
What advice psychologist adolescents are most appropriate? In spring, many people feel a lack of energy, strength and desire to do anything. Are no exception and adolescents. Psychologists give certain recommendations, as adolescents to overcome the spring gloom. It seems that spring is no reason to be sad. For autumn Blues are more compelling reasons: the decrease of daylight hours, joyless waiting a long winter, a cold snap. However, what is certain is that spring and felt the unhappiness and apathy.
Depression spring and the Blues are two different things. When the person is experiencing spring Blues – he has decreased tone, but he normally thinks, does not lose interest in communication and doing what. A person starts a little more sleep, work less enthusiastically, may be a bit more irritable. Depression is fundamentally different from the above-mentioned symptoms.
Sensible advice of psychologist adolescents will help to cope with sadness, and enter into the normal rhythm of life. In depression there are three main symptom: slow speech, slow thinking, motor block, melancholy mood. A person who is depressed, it is difficult to communicate, Continue reading
Childhood fears – what is it? How do they work? How to help your child cope with them? Where is the line between an age characteristic and pathological fear, when you look for help? These and many other questions are often of concern to parents of children of preschool age.
Fear is one of the main emotions that signal about the threat to the welfare, health, human life; fear is not always a symptom of nervous or mental disease. From the point of view of human evolution, it plays a protective and educational role, contributing to the knowledge of the outside world. In the development of the child’s fear is also a way of separating their own “I” from all foreign and dangerous .
All children’s fears can be divided into two groups: “age, compulsory” and “purchased, the optional” . Under “age” is proposed to understand the fears caused by the patterns of development of the child’s psyche. For example, one-year old child is afraid to release the mother from view. This is because children of this age the concept of time is very vague. They can hardly imagine how much it’s two hours, three days, a month or a year. And if mom and dad disappear from sight, even for a very short time – that for the child Continue reading